Anabolic steroid misuse

NHS Choices Syndication

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Anabolic steroid misuse


Anabolic steroids are prescription-only medicines that are sometimes taken illegally to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance.

If used in this way, they can cause serious side effects and addiction

Anabolic steroids are manufactured drugs that mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone. They have limited medical uses and aren’t to be confused with corticosteroids, a different type of steroid drug that’s commonly prescribed for a variety of conditions.

This page explains the dangers of misusing anabolic steroids and aims to advise and support those who are addicted to the drugs. It covers:

  • why people misuse anabolic steroids
  • how they are taken
  • side effects
  • addiction
  • getting help

Why people misuse anabolic steroids

Anabolic steroids are performance-enhancing drugs that increase muscle mass and decrease fat, as well as causing many undesirable effects (see below).

Some athletes, weightlifters and bodybuilders take them regularly to improve their physical performance and build up their bodies.

However, people of all ages have been known to misuse these drugs, including adolescent boys who suffer from body dysmorphia (an anxiety disorder where the way someone thinks about their body doesn’t match the way it looks).

Teenage boys and young men may take the drugs because they have “reverse anorexia”. This is when they don’t see themselves as being physically big enough or strong enough.

Some people believe that taking anabolic steroids will help them become fit and healthy. This isn’t true. Taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous drug habit.

How anabolic steroids are taken

Anabolic steroids are usually injected into the muscle, but some are available in tablet form, or as creams or gels that are applied to the skin.

Most people who use anabolic steroids are aware of the dangers of taking them, and have ways of getting the desired effect without the undesirable side effects. This involves injecting the drugs for a period of time and then stopping for a rest period before starting again. This is known as “cycling”.

More than one type of anabolic steroid may be used at a time. Users believe that this increases the effectiveness. This is known as “stacking”.

The term “pyramiding” refers to a combination of both stacking and cycling. One or more anabolic steroids is taken in a low dose. This is gradually increased to a maximum dose over 6-12 weeks, before the dose is reduced to zero to give the body a break and the cycle is started again.

Users tend to exercise more when they’re taking high doses to make the most of their improved performance during this time.

Athletes have been known to try to time their injections so the drug is out of their system by the time they’re drug tested.

Side effects of anabolic steroids

Regularly taking anabolic steroids causes a range of male features, not just increased muscle mass. It can also lead to potentially dangerous medical conditions, such as high blood pressure (hypertension) or heart attacks.

Physical effects

Effects of anabolic steroids in men include:

  • reduced sperm count
  • infertility 
  • shrunken testicles
  • baldness 
  • breast development
  • increased risk of developing prostate cancer
  • splayed teeth and overgrowth of the forehead (giving an ‘incredible hulk’ appearance)
  • severe acne

In women, anabolic steroids can cause:

  • facial hair growth and body hair
  • loss of breasts
  • swelling of the clitoris 
  • a deepened voice
  • an increased sex drive
  • problems with periods
  • hair loss
  • severe acne

In addition, both men and women who take anabolic steroids can develop any of the following medical conditions:

Psychological effects

Misusing anabolic steroids can also cause the following psychological or emotional effects:

  • aggressive behaviour 
  • mood swings
  • manic behaviour
  • hallucinations and delusions

Stunted growth in adolescents

Anabolic steroids accelerate bone growth, so if they’re misused by adolescents who haven’t yet had the growth spurt associated with puberty, they can cause premature ageing of the bones and restricted growth.


Like many other substances, anabolic steroids are addictive. This means you can crave the drug, require more to get the same effect and have withdrawal symptoms if you suddenly stop taking them.

A person who is addicted to anabolic steroids will continue using them despite experiencing unpleasant physical side effects.

When doctors prescribe steroid medication, they always advise coming off the medication slowly, by gradually reducing the dose. Coming off anabolic steroids suddenly can result in withdrawal symptoms that include:

Getting help 

You should see your GP if you think you’re addicted to anabolic steroids.

Treatment for an addiction to anabolic steroids will be similar to that of other types of addiction.

Your GP may refer you to a specially trained drugs counsellor. They’ll discuss your addiction with you, how to safely stop taking steroids, any obstacles you may face when trying to stop, plus strategies for dealing with those obstacles.

For more information and advice see:

Published Date
2013-12-11 11:47:48Z
Last Review Date
2013-11-08 00:00:00Z
Next Review Date
2015-11-08 00:00:00Z
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